Distance - Computer Simulation of Gas Turbines: Performance Monitoring, Maintenance and Profit Optimization, Power Augmentation, Profits, Revenue and Life Cycle Cost Analysis (1.8 CEU'S)


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This course is approximately 4-5 weeks in duration.

Learning Method:

  • The PDDP program is more of a self-guided learning style.

  • You are required to read the notes and materials given, complete the follow-up assignments on your own, send in your questions prior to your 1 hour webinar meeting (if required) and be involved in live discussion via the internet.

  • Once you have completed the course, you will receive a certificate of completion 

This course is part of the Power Generation Specialist Certificate program. Although it can also be taken on its own.
This course provides in-depth understanding of computer simulation of gas turbines under steady-state and transient conditions. The selection considerations and applications of co-generation and combined cycles are also covered in this course. The analysis performed by gas turbine simulators provides the following benefits:
  1. Allow the operator to extend the gas turbine operating period by avoiding unnecessary outages and maintenance activities.
  2. Determination of essential gas turbine maintenance activities to reduce the duration of the outage.
The simulation program is capable of simulating the following parameters to determine their effects on gas turbine performance, turbine creep life, environmental emissions, gas turbine life cycle cost, revenue, and profitability: variations in ambient temperature and pressure, inlet and exhaust losses, engine deterioration, different faults, power augmentation methods including peak mode, and water injection, control system performance (including proportional offset, integral windup, and trips), variations in the fuel type (natural gas, diesel, etc), variations in maintenance techniques and frequency, variations in many key parameters.
The simulation program is also capable of trending the following:
  1. Many gas turbine key parameters such as exhaust gas temperature, speed, etc.
  2. Compressor characteristics, and its operating point during engine transients.
These trends can also be provided as bar charts. The simulated data can be exported to other Window packages such as Excel spreadsheets, etc. Many simulation exercises are included to describe how the simulation program should be used for different scenarios including co-generation and combined cycle plants.
Delegates are also encouraged to bring the operational data of their gas turbines. The instructor will be able to perform simulation of their plants to reduce unnecessary maintenance activities, optimize the profits, and minimize environmental emissions.
De-regulation of the electricity markets is sweeping across the world. There will be increasing opportunities for highly efficient power generating plants, such as combined cycle and co-generation, to compete against the older plants of established utilities. These new plants are environmentally friendly and more than twice as efficient as the older fossil and nuclear generating plants. Independent Power Producers and utilities are planning to construct additional combined cycle and co-generation plants due to their short construction lead-time and low capital investment.
To provide a comprehensive understanding of computer simulation of gas turbines, as well as their selection criteria, operation and maintenance requirements, and economics. Participants will develop a good understanding of gas turbines and their numerous advantages.
Who Should Attend
Engineers of all disciplines, managers, technicians, maintenance personnel, and other technical individuals.
Special Feature
The following is included, in digital form, with your registration:
  1. A book (800 pages) titled “POWER PLANT EQUIPMENT OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE GUIDE” published by McGraw-Hill in 2012 and authored by the instructor.
  2. A manual (200 pages) authored by the instructor covering additional information about gas turbines and computer simulation.

The PDDP Distance Education program works as follows:

  • Once you register for this course, you will be sent a login username and password for our online distance website.

  • You will receive the course notes in hard copy through the online website, you will receive a set of notes each week covering the course material.

  • A one hour video-conference session will be conducted by your instructor each week (if required). The objective of this session is to assist in solving the assignments, as well as answer student questions that should be sent to instructor early enough prior to the meeting time. In addition with being able to communicate with the instructor, you will also be able to communicate with other students in the same class and watch their questions being answered as well. (A high speed internet connection is strongly recommended for this feature).

  • Each set of exercises can be completed and submitted by the indicated date and your completed exercise will be marked online and and returned by your instructor.

  • To gain the most from your course, it is highly recommended that you participate fully in all discussions and exercises. Please remember that each course has a form of quiz or exercise at the end to test your understanding of the material. You will be informed of these dates when you receive the course schedule.

*Course commencement date is subject to instructor availability.

Philip Kiameh

Philip Kiameh, M.A.Sc., B.Eng., D.Eng., P.Eng. (Canada) has been a teacher at University of Toronto and Dalhousie University, Canada for more than 24 years. In addition, Prof Kiameh has taught courses and seminars to more than four thousand working engineers and professionals around the world, specifically Europe and North America. Prof Kiameh has been consistently ranked as "Excellent" or "Very Good" by the delegates who attended his seminars and lectures.
Prof Kiameh wrote 5 books for working engineers from which three have been published by McGraw-Hill, New York. Below is a list of the books authored by Prof Kiameh:
  1. Power Generation Handbook: Gas Turbines, Steam Power Plants, Co-generation, and Combined Cycles, second edition, (800 pages), McGraw-Hill, New York, October 2011.
  2. Electrical Equipment Handbook (600 pages), McGraw-Hill, New York, March 2003.
  3. Power Plant Equipment Operation and Maintenance Guide (800 pages), McGraw-Hill, New York, January 2012.
  4. Industrial Instrumentation and Modern Control Systems (400 pages), Custom Publishing, University of Toronto, University of Toronto Custom Publishing (1999).
  5. Industrial Equipment (600 pages), Custom Publishing, University of Toronto, University of Toronto, University of Toronto Custom Publishing (1999).
Prof. Kiameh has received the following awards:
  1. The first "Excellence in Teaching" award offered by the Professional Development Center at University of Toronto (May, 1996).
  2. The "Excellence in Teaching Award" in April 2007 offered by TUV Akademie (TUV Akademie is one of the largest Professional Development centre in world, it is based in Germany and the United Arab Emirates, and provides engineering training to engineers and managers across Europe and the Middle East).
  3. Awarded graduation “With Distinction” from Dalhousie University when completed Bachelor of Engineering degree (1983).
  4. Entrance Scholarship to University of Ottawa (1984).
  5. Natural Science and Engineering Research Counsel (NSERC) scholarship towards graduate studies – Master of Applied Science in Engineering (1984 – 1985).
Prof. Kiameh performed research on power generation equipment with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at their Chalk River and Whiteshell Nuclear Research Laboratories. He also has more than 30 years of practical engineering experience with Ontario Power Generation (formerly, Ontario Hydro - the largest electric utility in North America).
While working at Ontario Hydro, Prof. Kiameh acted as a Training Manager, Engineering Supervisor, System Responsible Engineer and Design Engineer. During the period of time that Prof Kiameh worked as a Field Engineer and Design Engineer, he was responsible for the operation, maintenance, diagnostics, and testing of gas turbines, steam turbines, generators, motors, transformers, inverters, valves, pumps, compressors, instrumentation and control systems. Further, his responsibilities included designing, engineering, diagnosing equipment problems and recommending solutions to repair deficiencies and improve system performance, supervising engineers, setting up preventive maintenance programs, writing Operating and Design Manuals, and commissioning new equipment.
Later, Prof Kiameh worked as the manager of a section dedicated to providing training for the staff at the power stations. The training provided by Prof Kiameh covered in detail the various equipment and systems used in power stations.
Professor Philip Kiameh was awarded his Bachelor of Engineering Degree "with distinction" from Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. He also received a Master of Applied Science in Engineering (M.A.Sc.) from the University of Ottawa, Canada. He is also a member of the Association of Professional Engineers in the province of Ontario, Canada.

Review of Thermodynamics Principles
  • The First Law
  • The Enthalpy
  • The Closed System
  • The Cycle
  • Property Relationships
  • Perfect Gases
  • Imperfect Gases
  • Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibrium in A Pure Substance
  • The Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • The Concept of Reversibility
  • External and Internal Irreversabilities
  • The Concept of Entropy
  • The Carnot Cycle
The Turbine Governing Systems
  • Introduction
  • Governor Characteristics
  • Subsidiary Functions
  • Acceleration Feedback
  • Unloading Gear
  • Governor Speed Reference
  • Closed-Loop Control of Turbine Electrical Load
  • Overspeed Testing
  • Automatic Run-up and Loading Systems
  • Electronic Governing
  • Reheater Relief Valves
  • Hydraulic Fluid System
  • Filtration
Gas Turbine fundamentals
  • Gas Turbine cycles
  • Ideal cycles
  • Waste Heat Recuperators
  • Reheat Cycle
  • Combined Cycle Plants
An overview of Gas Turbines
  • Introduction
  • The Brayton Cycle
  • Industrial Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines
  • Aircraft-Derivative Gas Turbines
  • Medium-Range Gas Turbines
  • Small Gas Turbines
  • Major Gas Turbine Components
  • Compressors
  • Axial-Flow Compressors
  • Centrifugal Compressors
  • Compressor Materials
  • Two-Stage Compression
  • Regenerators
  • Combustors
  • Tubular (side combustors)
  • Can-annular and Annular
  • Combustor Operation
  • Turbines
  • Axial-Flow Turbines
  • Radial-Inflow Turbines
  • Heat Recovery Steam Generators
  • Total Energy Arrangement
  • Gas Turbine Applications
  • Comparison of Gas Turbines with Other Prime Movers
Gas Turbine Design
  • Introduction
  • Compressors
  • Compressor Off-Design Performance
  • Low rotational speeds
  • High rotational speeds
  • Combustors
  • Principles of Operation
  • Combustor Design Details
  • Cooling Provisions
  • Transition Housing and Ignition
  • Turbines
  • Turbine operation
  • Blade cooling
  • Types of cooling
  • Effectiveness of The Various Cooling Methods
  • Materials
  • Performance Degradation
Gas Turbine Calculations
  • Regenerative-Cycle Gas-Turbine Analysis
  • Calculation Procedure
Dynamic Compressors Technology
  • Introduction
  • Centrifugal compressors technology
  • Axial compressors overview
Gas Turbine Compressors
  • Centrifugal Compressors
  • Principle of Operation
  • Compressor Characteristics
  • Axial Flow Compressors
  • Compressor Auxiliaries, Off-Design Performance, Stall, And Surge
  • Introduction
  • Compressor auxiliaries
  • Compressor off-design performance, low rotational speeds, high rotational speeds.
  • Performance degradation.
Centrifugal Compressors – Components, Performance Characteristics, Balancing, Surge Prevention Systems and Testing
  • Introduction
  • Casing Configuration
  • Construction features
  • Diaphragms
  • Interstage seals
  • Balance piston seals
  • Impeller Thrust
  • Performance Characteristics
  • Slope of the centrifugal compressor head curve
  • Stonewall
  • Surge
  • Off-design Operation
  • Rotor Dynamics
  • Rotor Balancing
  • Surge Prevention Systems
  • Surge Identification
  • Liquid Entrainment
  • Instrumentation
  • Cleaning Centrifugal Compressors
  • Appendix A (Boundary Layer)
  • Definition
  • Description of the Boundary Layer
  • Separation; Wake
Dynamic Compressors Performance
  • Description of a centrifugal compressor
  • Centrifugal compressor types
  • Compressors with horizontally-split casings
  • Centrifugal compressors with vertically-split casings
  • Compressors with bell casings
  • Pipeline compressors
  • Performance limitations
  • Surge limit
  • Stonewall
  • Prevention of surge
  • Anti-surge control systems
Gas Turbine Combustors
  • Introduction
  • Combustion Terms
  • Combustion
  • Combustion Chamber Design
  • Flame Stabilization
  • Combustion and Dilution
  • Film Cooling of the Liner
  • Fuel Atomization and Ignition
  • Gas Injection
  • Wall Cooling
  • Wall-Cooling Techniques
  • Combustor Design Considerations
  • Air Pollution Problems
  • Smoke
  • Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide
  • Oxides of Nitrogen
  • Typical Combustor Arrangements
  • Combustors for Low Emissions
  • Combustors for Small Engines (less than 3 MW)
  • Industrial Chambers
  • Aeroderivative Engines
Axial-Flow Turbines
  • Introduction
  • Turbine Geometry
  • Degree of Reaction
  • Utilization Factor
  • Work Factor
  • Impulse Turbine
  • The Reaction Turbine
  • Turbine Blade Cooling Methods
  • Convection Cooling
  • Impingement Cooling
  • Film Cooling
  • Transpiration Cooling
  • Water Cooling
  • Turbine Blade Cooling Designs
  • Convection and Impingement Cooling/Strut Insert Design
  • Film and Convection Cooling Design
  • Transpiration Cooling Design
  • Multiple Small-Hole Design
  • Water-Cooled Turbine Blades
  • Cooled-Turbine Aerodynamics
Gas Turbine Materials
  • Introduction
  • General Metallurgical Behaviors in Gas Turbines
  • Creep and Rapture
  • Ductility and Fracture
  • Thermal Fatigue
  • Corrosion
  • Gas Turbine Blade Materials
  • Turbine Wheel Alloys
  • Coating for Gas Turbine Materials
Gas Turbine Lubrication and Fuel Systems
  • Gas Turbine Lubricating Systems
  • Cold Start Preparation
  • Fuel Systems
  • Liquid Fuels
  • Water and Sediment
  • Carbon Residue
  • Trace Metallic Constituents and Sulphur
  • Vanadium
  • Lead
  • Sodium and Potassium
  • Calcium
  • Sulphur
  • Gaseous Fuels
  • Gas Fuel Systems
  • Liquid Fuel Systems
  • Starting
  • Intake System
  • Compressor Cleaning
Gas Turbine Bearing and Seals
  • Bearings
  • Bearing Design Principles
  • Tilting-Pad Journal Bearings
  • Bearing Materials
  • Bearing and Shaft Instabilities
  • Thrust Bearings
  • Factors Affecting Thrust Bearing Design
  • Thrust Bearing Power Loss
  • Seals
  • Noncontacting Seals
  • Labyrinth Seals
  • Ring (Bushing) Seals
  • Mechanical (Face) Seals
  • Seal Systems
Gas Turbine Instrumentation and Control Systems
  • Vibration Measurement
  • Pressure Measurement
  • Temperature Measurement
  • Thermocouples
  • Resistive Thermal Detectors
  • Control Systems
  • Speed Control
  • Temperature Control
  • Protective Systems
  • Startup Sequence
  • Starting Preparations
  • Startup Description
  • Shutdown
  • Fuel System
  • Baseline for Machinery
  • Mechanical Baseline
  • Aerothermal Baseline
  • Data Trending
  • Compressor Aerothermal Characteristics and Compressor Surge
  • Failure Diagnostics
  • Compressor Analysis
  • Combustor Analysis
  • Turbine Analysis
  • Turbine Efficiency
  • Mechanical Problem Diagnostics
  • Instrumentation and Control Systems of a Typical Modern Gas Turbine
  • Modern Gas Turbine Control Systems
  • Closed-Looped Controllers
  • Protective Systems
  • Permissives (Interlocks)
  • Liquid Fuel Supply
  • Start-up Sequence of the Gas Turbine
  • Cranking Phase
  • Acceleration Phase
  • Synchronization Phase
  • Loading Phase
  • Operation Phase
  • Inlet Guide Vanes
  • Compressor Bleed Valves
  • Transmitters
Gas Turbine Performance Characteristics
  • Thermodynamic Principles
  • Thermodynamic Analysis
  • Factors Affecting Gas Turbine Performance
  • Air Extraction
  • Performance Enhancements
  • Inlet Cooling
  • Steam and Water Injection for Power Augmentation
  • Peak Rating
  • Performance Degradation
  • Verifying Gas Turbine Performance
Gas Turbine Operating and Maintenance Considerations
  • Introduction
  • Gas Turbine Design Maintenance Features
  • Borescope Inspection
  • Major Factors Influencing Maintenance and Equipment Life
  • Starts and Hours Criteria
  • Service Factors
  • Fuel
  • Firing Temperature
  • Steam/Water Injection
  • Cyclic Effects
  • Air Quality
  • Combustion Inspection
  • Hot-Gas-Path Inspection
  • Major Inspection
Gas Turbine Emission Guidelines and Control Methods
  • Background
  • Emissions From Gas Turbines
  • General Approach For a National Emission Guideline
  • NOX Emission Target Levels
  • Power Output Allowance
  • Heat Recovery Allowance
  • Emission Levels For Other Contaminants
  • Carbon Monoxide
  • Sulphur Dioxide
  • Other Contaminants
  • Size Ranges For Emission Targets
  • Peaking Units
  • Emission Monitoring
  • NOX Emission Control Methods
  • Water and Steam Injection
  • Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
  • Dry Low-NOX Combustors
Computer Simulation of Gas Turbines
  • Introduction
  • Effects of ambient temperature on gas turbine performance
  • Effects of ambient pressure on gas turbine performance
  • Simulation of effects of component deterioration on engine performance
  • Compressor fouling
  • Turbine damage
  • Power Augmentation
  • Peak rating
  • Power augmentation by water injection
  • Simulation of engine control system performance
  • Proportional-integral-derivative control loop
  • Proportional action
  • Proportional and integral action
  • Proportional, integral and derivative action
  • Signal selection
  • Optimizing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)
  • Trips
  • Variable Inlet Guide Vanes (VIGV’s) control
  • Profits, Revenue and Life Cycle Cost Analysis
  • Effects of ambient temperature and pressure on life cycle cost
  • Power augmentation
  • Performance deterioration
  • Maintenance cost
  • Non-Dimensional Analysis
  • Application of Flow Compatibility Equation During Hot End Damage
  • Application of Flow Compatibility Equation When the Ambient Temperature Drops
  • Computer Simulation Applications
  • Computer simulation applications for several gas turbine installations
  • Computer simulation applications for several co-generation and combined cycle plants
Computer Simulation of Gas Turbines and Combined Cycles Exercises and Solutions
1 - Effects of ambient temperature and pressure on engine performance
Determine the maximum generator power, gas turbine shaft power and thermal efficiency for the engine when operating at ISO conditions. What is the creep life usage of the turbine? ISO conditions refer to an ambient temperature and pressure of 15 degrees Celsius and 1.013Bar respectively and zero inlet and exhaust losses.
What limits the power output from the gas turbine?
Determine the emissions from the gas turbine and hence calculate the amount of NOx, CO and CO2 in Tonnes/year.
The engine operating at site has the following conditions.
  • Ambient temperature 15 degrees Celsius
  • Ambient pressure 1.013 Bar
  • Inlet and exhaust loss of 100 mm water gauge
Determine the parameters in exercise 1 above and calculate the percent changes in the parameters when operating at site rated conditions. Explain the changes in the turbine life usage.
3 - Determine the percent changes in the parameters in exercise 1 when 
  1. The ambient temperature is 30 degrees Celsius
  2. The ambient temperature is zero degrees Celsius
  3. The ambient temperature is –15 degrees Celsius
What limits the power output from the gas turbine when operating at these ambient temperatures?
Repeat this simulation exercise using the control system option 2. Comment on the operation of the variable inlet guide vane (VIGV) at these ambient conditions.
4 - When operating at site rated conditions as stipulated in exercise 2, determine the parameters in exercise 1 when the ambient pressure is 0.975 Bar and calculate the percent change from the values determined in exercise 1 above.
5 - When the required power output from the generator is 37MW and the ambient pressure and temperature are 0.975 Bar and 15 degrees Celsius respectively. Determine the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine. If the ambient pressure increases to 1.03 Bar explain the why the thermal efficiency decreases and explain the changes in the turbine creep life usage and emissions.
6 - Produce a graph describing the maximum gas turbine power output with ambient temperature indicating what engine parameter restricts the capacity of the gas turbine at different ambient temperatures. Also, determine the ambient temperature when the engine power output is limited by exhaust gas temperature and maximum power limit. The variation in ambient temperature should be from 30 to –17 degrees Celsius in steps of 10 degrees.
7 - Increased filter loss and low ambient pressure reduces the compressor inlet pressure. When the engine developing 37MW of electrical power explain difference in thermal efficiency when the compressor inlet pressure decreases due to a high filter loss and low ambient pressure.
8 - Use the gas turbine to demonstrate the benefits of a closed cycle gas turbine.
9 - If this engine operates as a closed cycle gas turbine using air as the working fluid with a system pressure is 5 Bars, estimate the maximum power output from the gas turbine. What is the thermal efficiency of the closed cycle gas turbine? Assume a compressor inlet temperature of 15 degrees Celsius.
10- A factory is being planed and it has been decided that the plant shall generate its own electrical power of 32 MW with the prospect of selling any surplus power to the grid. Two possible sites are suitable. The average ambient temperature and pressure of the first site is 30 Celsius and 1.013 Bar respectively. The second site is at a higher elevation and the average ambient temperature and pressure is 15 degrees Celsius and 0.975 Bar respectively. Use the simulator to determine the most suitable site based on engine performance. Assume an inlet and exhaust loss of 100 mm water gauge respectively.
Economic and Technical Considerations for Combined Cycle Performance Enhancement Options
  • Introduction
  • Economic Evaluation Technique
  • Output Enchancement
  • Gas Turbine Inlet Air Cooling
  • Evaporative Cooling
  • Evaporative Cooling Methods
  • Evaporative Cooling Theory.
  • Wetted-Honeycomb Evaporative Coolers
  • Water Requirements for Evaporative Coolers
  • Foggers
  • Evaporative Intercooling
  • Inlet Chilling
  • Inlet Chilling Methods
  • Off-Peak Thermal Energy Storage
  • Gas Vaporizers of Liquefied Petroleum Gases
  • Power Augmentation
  • Gas Turbine Steam/Water Injection
  • Supplementary Fired HRSG
  • Peak Firing
  • Output Enhancement Summary
  • Efficiency Enhancement
  • Fuel Heating
  • Conclusion
Selection of the Best Power Enhancement Option for Combined Cycle Plants
  • Plant description
  • Evaluation of inlet-air pre-cooling option
  • Evaluation of inlet-air chilling option
  • Evaluation of absorption chilling system
  • Evaluation of the steam and water injection options
  • Evaluation of supplementary firing in HRSG option
  • Comparison of all power enhancement options

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