Distance - Power System Protection (1.2 CEU's)

Dr. Eduard Loiczli

Eduard Loiczli is currently a Nuclear Integration Senior Electrical Engineer for Ontario Power Generation. He has more than 26 years experience in Electrical Engineering and Controls and has made many achievements in the industry. He has designed programming applications for nuclear applications, SCADA and DCS. He has also created programming and integration solutions for oil extraction and an automated line for the glass industry. In addition to programming solutions, Mr Loiczli has been project leader for design in many electrical projects.
Mr Loiczli is a member of IEEE, Ontario Fire Association and APEO. He is a Certified Nuclear Engineer.


  • Introduction to Power System Protection and Coordination 
    • Power System Faults
    • Different types of faults
    • Incidence of faults on power system equipment
    • Effects of power system faults
    • Magnitude of fault current
    • Detection of faults
    • Clearance of faults
  • Requirements of protective relaying systems
    • Types Of Electrical Protection for Power Systems
    • Fuses for High Voltage and Medium Voltage Systems,
    • Time Current Characteristics of the Power Fuses.
    • Fixed and Variable tripping of a Power Fuse
    • Expulsion Type Fuse, Advantage and Limitations
    • Cable Protection In Line Fuses
    • Reducing the ARC Flash in case an event happen
  • Electrical Protection design Steps and factors to be considered
    • Modeling a Power System, Data Validation
    • Short Circuit Analysis of a Power System
    • Analytical or Software driven calculation
    • Example of analytical short circuit current calculation
    • Protection Coordination - TCC Curves
    • Calibration and Maintenance of Protective Equipment-Relay
    • Calibration Data Sheets
    • Test bench equipment for Calibration and validation
    • Codes and Standards applicable to Electrical Power Systems
  • Understanding the Power System Protection Relays
    • Classification of Protection Relays
    • Voltage and Current Instrument Transformers
    • Zero sequence Network
    • Electromechanical Units: Magnetic Units; Induction Units; Thermal Units; D'Arsonval Units
    • Solid State Units,: Semiconductor Components; Solid State Logic Units; Fault Sensing and Amplification Units
    • Basic Logic Circuits and Operation
    • Microprocessor Controlled Relays
  • System Protection Philosophy, Location of the Power System Protection Relay
    • Defining the Relay Protection Zone and Functions
    • Standards and Code Requirements for Electrical System Protection
    • Integrating the Protection Relay to The Power Distribution System
    • Selection of the best strategy of Protecting The Power System
    • Correlation between the Power System Protection and The Grounding
    • Configuration, Solid Grounding; Resistive Grounding and Impedance Grounding
    • Strategy of replacing Obsolete Protection Relay System
  • Protective Relay Application
  • Current Transformers (CT) and Voltage Transformers (VT)
    • Various types of CTs, VTs, and CVTs
    • Theory and characteristics of CTs
    • Application requirements of CTs for protective relaying
    • Accuracy classifications
    • Future trends in CT design using optics
    • Testing of CTs and VTs
  • Feeder Overcurrent Protection
    • Protective relaying requirements for radial systems
    • Elements of feeder protection schemes
    • High-set, low-set, and inverse-timed elements
    • Coordination with other devices and fuses
    • Various types of overcurrent relays
    • Electromechanical, electronic, and digital relays
    • Relay setting criteria
    • Load limitations
    • Testing of overcurrent protection schemes
    • Microprocessor-based feeder overcurrent relays: features, application, and testing
  • Coordination of Electrical Protection Systems
    • Fuse to fuse
    • Circuit breaker to fuse
    • Fuse to circuit breaker
    • Computer software packages for protection coordination studies
    • Auto-reclosing of circuit breakers
    • Breaker failure protection
    • Back-up protection
    • Limitation of fault current
    • Selective zones of protection
  • Bus Protection
    • Types of bus protection schemes
    • Basic concept of differential protection
    • High-impedance relays for bus differential protection
    • Application to various bus configurations
    • Bus protection for radial systems
    • Testing of bus protection schemes
  • Motor Protection, Starting and Control
    • Applicable motor standards
    • Methods of starting
    • Differential protection, phase unbalance, overcurrent
    • Ground fault protection
    • Canadian Electrical Code requirements
    • Microprocessor-based motor control and protection devices
  • Transformer Protection
    • Overcurrent and ground fault protection
    • Application of differential protection to transformers
    • Restricted ground fault protection
    • Gas relays, pressure and gas accumulation
    • Winding temperature and oil temperature devices
    • Testing of transformer protection schemes
    • Modern microprocessor-based multi-function relays: available functions, application, and testing
  • Generator Protection
    • Differential protection
    • Reverse power, 100% stator ground fault, out-of-step
    • Loss of field, field ground, overexcitation, inter-turn, etc.
    • Over-frequency, underfrequency, overvoltage, undervoltage
    • Negative phase sequence or phase unbalance
    • Voltage controlled and voltage restricted overcurrent protection
    • Synchronizing systems, synchro-check relays
    • Comparison of electro-mechanical and electronic relays
    • Testing of generator protection schemes
    • Microprocessor-based multi-function generator protection relays: available relays, application, and testing
  • Integrated Power System Protection Devices
    • Bessel Integrated Protection Units
    • GE Integrated Relay Systems-Multiline G60; G30 and other GE Protection Integrated Relay
    • Switzer Laboratory Integrated Solutions-SEL Protection Family
    • ABB Integrated Relays DPU/TPU Relay Family
    • COOPER Protection Relays
    • VAMP Protection Integrated Relays
    • SIPROTEC Siemens Relays
    • MICOM Schneider Protection relay family
    • Comparing the Main Manufacturer Protection Relay Performance

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