Distance - Backup Generators (1.2 CEU's)

Dr. Eduard Loiczli

Eduard Loiczli is currently a Nuclear Integration Senior Electrical Engineer for Ontario Power Generation. He has more than 26 years experience in Electrical Engineering and Controls and has made many achievements in the industry. He has designed programming applications for nuclear applications, SCADA and DCS. He has also created programming and integration solutions for oil extraction and an automated line for the glass industry. In addition to programming solutions, Mr Loiczli has been project leader for design in many electrical projects.
Mr Loiczli is a member of IEEE, Ontario Fire Association and APEO. He is a Certified Nuclear Engineer.


Theory of Backup Generators:
1. Engine Cycles: Brayton and Otto: Inlet; Compression; Combustion; Exhaust
  • Brayton Cycle explained
  • OTTO cycle explained
  • Inlet function and design
  • Compression Function and design
  • Combustion Function and design
  • Exhaust Function and design
2. Combustion-Burner Construction and Function
  • Combustion construction and function
  • Burner construction and function
3. Compressors: Axial, Single rotor; Multiple Stage; Centrifugal
  • Type of Compressors
  • Axial compressor Single Stage Construction and function
  • Axial compressor Multiple Stage Construction and function
  • Centrifugal Compressor
4. Gas turbines: Example: Brayton Model: Open and Closed Cycle
  • Example of a gas turbine, Bryaton Model
  • Open and close Cycle of Bryaton Model
5. Power Turbines
  • Two Spool Turbine
  • Power Turbine Blade
  • Power Turbine Inlet Compressor Burner and Nozzle
6. Engines: Turbojet; Turboprop; Turbofan; Turboshaft; Ramjet
  • Design Functions and parameters of Turbojet Engine
  • Design Functions and parameters of Turboprop Engine
  • Design Functions and parameters of Turboshaft Engine
  • Design Functions and parameters of Turbojet Ramjet
7. Governor Control, Block Diagram
  • Governor Control loop Block diagram
  • Fuel Modulation and Speed Control
  • Vibration Amortization and Control
8. Compressor Surge and Compressor Stall Condition
  • Compressor Surge Condition explained
  • compressor Stall Condition explained
9. Types of Excitation - Automatic Voltage Regulator
  • Automatic Voltage regulator functions; parameters; settings and alarms
  • Static Generator exciter-SCR Based
  • Rotating Engine with diode rectifier exciter
10. Generator Controller Function Local and Remote Commands, Controller Settings And Alarms
  • Implementation of NFPA 110 LEVEL 1 REQUIREMENTS
11. Trip points, and shut down conditions
  • Emergency Stop
  • High coolant temperature
  • High Oil Temperature
  • Controller Internal Fault
  • Locked Rotor Fault
  • Low Coolant Level
  • Low oil Level
  • Low oil pressure
  • High Generator winding temperatureMaster switch error
  • Overcranck
  • Overspeed
  • Generator overvoltage
  • Generator undervoltage
  • Generator over frequency
  • Generator underfrequency
  • Coolant signal loss
  • Oil pressure signal loss
12. Power transfer from Utility to Backup Generator and from Backup Generator to Utility, Auto and Manual
  • Insolated neutral transfer (3 phase only)
  • Neutral Transfer
13. Generator Protection: IEEE 242 & IEEE 37.102
  • Requirements for Generator Protection: Short circuit; Unbalance Voltage; Reverse Power; Loss of Excitation
14. Generator Grounding and Bonding
  • Solid grounding
  • High Impedance grounding
  • Safety Bonding requirements
15. Generator Requirements Having UPS Load
  • Timing and Synchronization of the UPS frequency connected to a Backup generator
  • Event Flow in case of a blackout
16. Generator Sizing; Installation and Testing Requirements
  • Generator Load Characteristic-Static and Dynamic load to be considered
  • Installation requirement, gas emission and safety
  • Testing requirements according to IEEE 282-09
Day Two
17. Example of a 750KVA/600V BACKUP GENERATOR:
  • Example of a Detroit Diesel Generator Engine: 6 cylinder, in line 4 stroke Turbocharged and intercooled
  • Standard Accessories
18. Maintenance Activity related to the Engine:
  • Replacement of dry type filter with service indicator
  • Replacing Lube oil filter
  • Replacing Flexible Fuel lines supply and return
  • Maintaining: Battery; Charger; Fuel Injection System; Oil Sump and Drain; fuel pump
19. Alternator ratings and maximum temperatures
  • Alternator rating and maximum temperature
  • Alternator winding and grounding
  • Alternator Bearings Maintenance
  • Rotor Winding, brushless design
20. Generator Voltage Regulators
  • Solid state, 0.25 per cent Regulation
  • VOLT/HERTZ Operation; voltage stability and tuning
  • Paralleling capability and drooping
  • Var and PF control
  • Monitoring Parameters:
  • Electrical: Voltage; Currents; Frequency; Loading: Power Factor; Duty Level; Battery voltage
  • Mechanical: Coolant Temperature; Level; Oil Pressure; Fuel used; Fuel Presure; Fuel TemperatureRun time, etc
21. Operational and Maintenance Records
  • Mandatory Testing of backup Generators, IEEE and NFPA
  • Application example using service documentation and tuning software

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