Distributed Generation (DG) Technologies (1.8 CEUs)

Daily Schedule:
8:00am - Registration and coffee (1st day only)
8:30am - Session begins
4:30pm - Adjournment
Breakfast, two refreshment breaks and lunch are provided daily.
Conventionally, electricity is generated in large central units that are connected to the high-voltage transmission system. The distribution networks are being used for delivering the electricity to the customers. Most electric distribution systems are designed, protected, and operated on the premise that there is a single source of electric power on each distribution feeder at any given time. Because interconnecting Distributed Resources (DR) (known as Distributed Generation DG) violates this basic assumption, there are special requirements for connecting to utility distribution systems. These technical requirements can be complex, blending traditional distribution engineering practices with added attention to power quality concerns, safety, and installation needs for advanced DR technologies. There are also many economical issues to be addressed due to the interconnection of different types of DG’s. Distributed generation (DG) has the potential to play an important role in a future sustainable energy system Properly applied distributed generation, installed on a significant scale, can have very positive effects on the environment, energy efficiency, security of supply and price of electricity paid by consumers. However there are still barriers, technical and non-technical, that are limiting the introduction and use of DG.

The main objective of this course is to provide up-to-date knowledge about the technical and economical issues relating to the distribution generation. In addition to an introduction to various generating technologies, a more detailed part will be included discussing various applications of power electronics. The impacts of DG to the distribution system will be presented. The focus will be on electrical issues such as grid connection, losses, planning, protection, and control. In addition, the economical and regulatory issues will be addressed. Effects of DG on voltage regulation, relaying, losses, islanding and standards will be examined.

Learning Objectives

  • To provide an in-depth study of the distributed generation technology along with their merits and limitations together with a detailed description and analysis of the effects that distributed generation impose on the distribution system
  • To provide a good understanding of different distributed generation technologies
  • Review the available standards for distributed generation interconnection
  • Understand the impact of DG on distribution system performance, reliability, safety, protection and quality
  • To train distribution engineers on how to operate distribution networks with embedded generation
  • To enhance the protection aspects of distribution system with distributed generation
  • To introduce the state of the art techniques in distributed generation planning
  • To highlight the economical benefits from installing distributed generation

Who Should Attend
Consulting engineers, plant managers, electrical power distribution engineers, electrical power system engineers, project engineers, operating and maintenance engineers and all personnel involved in the safety and the operating of the electrical distribution systems who have a concern or increasing their performance. 

After participating in the seminar, you will be able to:

  • Recognize the rational behind distributed generation along with their effects on the distribution system
  • Model your DG and select its engineering components
  • Select suitable equipment interface your DG to the grid
  • Size your DG plant to maximize the system profit
  • Estimate the system losses and reliability indices
  • Discover the DG effects on system protection
  • Connect to the grid knowing the impact of your plant generated power on the utility’s power quality
  • Perform economic feasibility analysis 

Ehab El-Saadany

Ehab El-Saadany, Ph.D., P.Eng.
Dr. El-Saadany received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from Ain Shams University, Egypt, and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, all in electrical engineering in 1986, 1990, and 1998, respectively. Presently, he is a Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at the University of Waterloo.

Prof. El-Saadany taught many courses at the graduate and undergraduate levels in power system analysis, distribution system engineering and power quality. He presented many seminars and short courses in North America, Europe and Middle East all in distribution systems engineering. He has authored/co-authored 74 research journal publications and 120 international conference publications on electric power systems and supervised 21 graduate students (Master and Ph.D.). Dr. El-Saadany is the recipient of the James Field teaching excellence award in 2006 and the Government of Ontario Early Research Award in 2007. In 2009, Dr. El-Saadany became a Canada Reserach Chair in Energy Systems.

His research interests are in the area of the operation, protection and control of distribution systems. He is also conducting research in power quality analysis, distributed generation interfacing, fuel cells and microgenerator design.
Day I

Welcome, Introduction, Workshop Preview, Learning Outcomes and the Assessment Method


  • Introducing the conventional and deregulated structures of power systems
  • Introducing the proposed definitions for Distributed Generation (DG): drivers for DG installation
  • Presenting the general characteristics for DGs
  • Reviewing the impacts of connecting DGs: impacts on distribution system, impacts on transmission system, impacts on central generation, impacts on safety
  • Green energy statistics

Distributed Generation (DG) Types

  • Classification of DG types
  • Wind Turbines: characteristics, advantages and drawbacks, construction, classification and power production, wind pdf and capacity factor, interfacing and control of wind turbines, control schemes, simulation case studies
  • Solar power: types of solar power
  • Photovoltaic: construction and operation, PV characteristics and modeling: simple and exact equivalent circuits, shading effect, PV interfacing and control
  • Other DG types

Distributed Generation Interfacing

  • Different interfacing techniques for distributed generation: rotating machines, power electronics, combined mechanisms, transformer configurations
  • Reviewing the related international standards for distributed generation interconnections with utility grid

Day II

Renewable DG Power Prediction

  • Forecasting time horizon
  • Wind speed prediction methods: the Persistent Model, time series based methods, statistical based methods, physical power prediction model
  • Non-renewable DGs and storage devices
  • DG comparison

Operational Control of DG

  • Threshold control
  • Buyback priority control
  • Net metering control
  • Cooling/heating priority control
  • Optimal control

Sizing and Sitting of DG in Existing Distribution System

  • Distribution system planning procedure: major planning steps, planning objectives, problem formulation and system constraints, loss minimization procedure, case study
  • DG placement for reliability improvement: reliability indices
  • Reliability calculation and system segmentation
  • Case study
  • Optimal fuel mix for loss minimization
  • Probabilistic planning approach


DG Effects on Distribution System Operation

  • Losses evaluation with DG integration: effect of sustainable DG uncertainty on losses, case study
  • System voltage profile with DG
  • Reverse power flow and its effect on losses
  • DG Operational conflicts

DG Effects on System Protection

  • Introducing the impacts of distributed generation on power system protection: impacts on short circuit levels, impacts on relay coordination, loss of sensitivity, fuse nuisance blowing, bi-directionality, case study
  • Distributed generation interconnection protection requirements.
  • Islanding detection of DG: passive detection methods, active methods, non-detective zones

DG Economics

  • Types of costs with DG
  • Time value of money
  • Electric utility rate structure: standard residential rate, residential time of use rate, demand charges, load factor
  • Cash flow analysis
  • Example of electricity costs with DG

Questions and Answers and Feedback to Participants on Achievement of Learning Outcomes

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Course Materials

Each participant will receive a complete set of course notes and handouts that will serve as informative references.

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